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World Congress on Psychiatry and Psychology, will be organized around the theme “Perspectives for improvement in Psychiatry, Psychology and Mental Health”
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Psychology and Psychiatry are professions which complement each other in the study, identification and treatment of mental health problems. They both cover the large areas of research in the complex web of human behaviour, in both normal and abnormal cases.
Psychology is generally the Science of the Mind. It is the scientific study of how the human mind works and it emphasises on how the physical brain interact personality, intellect, environment, life experience and brain chemistry work together and help creating a unique individual. Psychiatry is the branch of medicine which is concerned with the understanding, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the mind. The disorders can involve emotions, behaviour, perceptions and cognition (thinking). Psychiatry is one of the most varied, interesting and rewarding specialties in medicine. Every day can be different and every patient seen is unique.
According to the lay public shares, there is a major misunderstanding between the differences in the roles of Psychiatrists and Psychologists. The both professionals have a basic difference in their nature of training. Psychologists are the trained personnel in Psychology programs from university that focus on the connections between the brain and behaviour, research techniques, and methods of treating behaviour problems. On the other hand, a Psychiatrist is a medical doctor or M.D. who should be specialized in both the study of the physical brain and psychology, and also how these interact to create the human personality. The nature of their training permits psychiatrists to prescribe medication as a means of helping a client to deal with their problems.
Psychiatry is in one of the most interesting, exciting, creative, productive and developing phases of its long history. Stimulated by the rapid acquisition of new scientific knowledge, and pressurized by external factors requiring empirically documented objectification, the field is undergoing a significant transformation.
The medical speciality concerned with the study, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental health disorders, dysfunctions, and abnormalities. But the hypocrisy of a few and the curiosity of others, has made this field also a victim of the fatal preposition “Divide and Rule” and has resulted in new fields.
- Forensic psychiatry
- Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
- Organizational & Industrial Psychiatry
- Addiction psychiatry
- Geriatric Psychiatry
- Community Psychiatry
- Asylum Psychiatry
- Social Psychiatry
- Cultural Psychiatry
- Descriptive Psychiatry
- Dynamic Psychiatry
- Experimental Psychiatry
- Pastoral Psychiatry
- Infant Psychiatry
- Political Psychiatry
Forensic psychiatry comes under one of the subfield of psychiatry and is related to criminology. It encircles the interface between law and psychiatry. A forensic psychiatrist provides services such as determination of competency to stand trial to a court of law to facilitate the adjudicative process and provide treatment like medications and psychotherapy to criminals.
- Violence Risk Management
- Treatment and assessment conflict
- Criminological Models
Child psychiatry is a challenging field which correlate the interaction between two important fields. Forensic psychiatry and the areas of knowledge and expertise that are the purview of the child psychiatrist: child custody, child abuse and child neglect, and the juvenile court.
Adolescent Psychiatry is the department that focuses in, prognosis, remedy and prevention of thinking, feeling and/or behaviour affecting kids, young people and their families. The adolescent psychiatrist uses the knowledge of biological, mental, and social factors in working with patients. The psychiatrist makes a diagnosis primarily based at the pattern of conduct and emotional signs, the use of a standardized set of diagnostic standards along with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual or the International Classification of Diseases.
- Geriatric psychiatric
- Electroconvulsive therapy
- Psychoactive drugs – uses and Over-prescription effects
- Factors influenced-Biological and Genetic
Industrial and Organizational Psychiatry is otherwise known as occupational psychology or organizational psychology. It is the science of human behaviour relating to work and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations and individuals in their places of work as well as the individual's work-life.
- Occupational stress
- Problems Addressing
- Population Served Solutions
- Skills and Procedures Utilization
Addiction psychiatry is a medical subspecialty within psychiatry that focuses on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of people who are suffering from one or more disorders related to addiction. This is a psychiatric subspecialty relating to the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of people suffering from addiction disorders. With the recent explosion in scientific knowledge in the area of substance abuse, growing sophistication in our understanding of the factors that contribute to substance use disorders has led to therapeutic strategies tailored to specific subgroups of those who misuse substances. Novel pharmacological strategies have been developed and are being implemented to target individuals for whom affective, attentional or anxiety symptoms pose a particular vulnerability to the development of substance use disorder or dependence. This may include disorders involving:
- Use of legal and illegal drugs
- Gambling addiction
- Sex addiction
- Food, and other impulse control disorders
In Psychiatry and mental wellness Cortical advancement is an accumulation of human cortical gray matter change between the age of 4– 21 years utilizing quantitative 4D maps and time-lapse by groupings. Thirteen energizing children for whom anatomic personality MRI examines were gotten for like clockwork, and for 8– 10 years it had been contemplated. With the assistance of models of the cortical surface and sulcus regional marks, human cortical change may be imagined over the age assortment. The outcome shows that ,higher-arrange alliance cortices develop best after lower-arrange somatosensory and visual cortices, the abilities of which they join, are developed, and afterward phylo-genetically more established personality districts develop ahead of time than more modern ones. Coordinate diverge from customary cortical improvement may moreover help for the learning of some neurodevelopmental issue comprising of youth-beginning schizophrenia or a mental imbalance.
- Schizophrenia Analysis based on Imaging
- Brain and Behaviour Development in Autism
- Cortical Thinning and Neuropsychiatric Outcomes in Children
Psychology is a very huge topic and describing the depth and breadth of the subject can be highly difficult. As a result, a number of unique and distinctive branches of psychology have emerged to deal with specific subtopics within the study of the mind, brain, and behaviour. Psychology can be roughly divided into two major areas:
- Research, which seeks to increase our knowledge base
- Practice, through which our knowledge is applied to solving problems in the real world
Because human behaviour is highly variable, the number of subfields in psychology is also constantly growing and evolving to different variables. Each field of psychology represents a specific area of study focused on a particular topic. The following are just some of the major branches of psychology.
- Abnormal Psychology
- Behavioural Psychology
- Clinical Psychology
- Cognitive Psychology
- Comparative Psychology
- Counselling Psychology
- Cross-Cultural Psychology
- Developmental Psychology
- Educational Psychology
- Experimental Psychology
- Forensic Psychology
- Health Psychology
- Industrial-Organizational Psychology
- Personality Psychology
- School Psychology
- Social Psychology
- Sports Psychology
Developmental psychology and abnormal psychology, both are different significant fields of psychology and which are more popular from the lot. Developmental psychology deals with the mental, cognitive, and psychological changes that occur during a human’s life cycle, whereas abnormal psychology deals with the scientific study of irregular occurrences of human thought, emotion and behavior.
- Modern psychoanalysis
- MRI study of children with developmental disorder
- Analysis of Factors
Nutritional approaches for mental health
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". Cognitive psychology involves the study of internal mental processes all of the things that go on inside your brain, including perception, thinking, memory, attention, language, problem-solving, and learning. While it is a relatively young branch of psychology, it has quickly grown to become one of the most popular subfields. Learning more about how people think and process information not only helps researchers gain a deeper understanding of how the human brain works, but it allows psychologists to develop new ways of helping people deal with psychological difficulties.
Social psychology is the scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. The terms thoughts, feelings, and behaviors include all of the psychological variables that are measurable in a human being. The approaches to the field focuses on the individual, and attempts to explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals are influenced by other people.
Social psychology has a significant impact not only on the academic worlds of psychology, sociology, and the social sciences in general, but has also influenced public understanding and expectation of human social behaviour. Social psychology bridges the interest of psychology with. Most social psychologists are trained within the discipline of psychology. Psychologically oriented researchers place a great deal of emphasis on the immediate social situation, and the interaction between person and situation variables.
- Applied Social Psychology
- Critical Social Psychology
- Sociological Social Psychology
- Community Psychology
- Consumer Psychology
- Cross-Cultural Psychology
Some social psychology topics are:
- Antisocial Behavior
- Decision Making
- Interpersonal Relationships
- Prosocial Behavior
- Social Cognition
- Social Influence
Hormone changes that occur during a woman's menstrual cycle and pregnancy period may play an important role in their mental health. There are many environmental factors are there which may spoil the mental health of a woman like harassment, rape cases and post trauma practices. But most of the woman meets with the mental illness in their pregnancy and menstrual cycle period.
- Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)
- Postnatal depression and perinatal mental health
Psychology involves the study of mind and behaviour. Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, emotion, intelligence, phenomenology, motivation, attention, brain functioning, personality, behaviour, and interpersonal relationships also including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychological knowledge is often greatly used to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, ultimately aims to benefit society.
Other Psychology Diseases and Disorders
Scientists have found similar levels of particular molecules in the brains of those patients with autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; other common factors between bipolar and major depression; and also some other matches between major depression and autism.
The overlapping patterns of molecules in the brains are caused by the intake of antipsychotic medications by many mentally ill patients frequently. To eliminate this possibility of overlapping of patterns, the researchers compared the brain samples of nonhuman primates that was previously tested to evoke psychosis and then treated with antipsychotic drugs. The medications appeared to partially “normalize” the disordered genetic activity in the nonhuman primate. Psychiatric disorders have some overlapping symptoms, making them difficult to diagnose.
A recent study shows that certain patterns of genetic activity appear to be common among five distinct psychiatric disorders.
- Bipolar disorder
- Sleep and eating disorder
- Mind and Body Problem
- Gambling disorder
- Gender dysphoria
- Postpartum depression
- Obsessive-Compulsive disorder
- Anxiety and addiction disorder
- Depression and alcoholism
- Posttraumatic stress disorder
Suicidal thoughts are the shattering consequence of mental health disorder that is seen in all levels of society. Issues of mental unsteadiness are caused by psychological mutilation or psychiatric disorders. Anyone who is inclined to mental impairments can encounter chronic mental health disease or episodic bouts of the disorder. Stress or other environmental triggers can throw a healthy person into a mental health crisis or cause a recovering person to relapse.
The individuals with mental illness whorl out of control, the family steps in as caregivers, which places the burden onto the family. The family structure undergoes huge change in order to meet the need of the loved one who is ill. The struggle to handle and provide help for their loved one often creates mal-adaptive behaviors among family members. This type of strain results in family instability, and family members becomes susceptible to the very mental problems they are trying to solve.
- Economic impact
- Panic Attacks
- Self & Environmental harmness
Mental Health Rehabilitation is the process of restoration of community functioning and well-being of an individual who are in mentally inconvenient state or affected by mental disorders. The aim of Rehabilitation is to manage their illness so that they can be successful and satisfied and participate in the community while maintaining an increased level of independence and a high level of quality of life.
- Social Psychiatry
- Peer-provider approach
- supported employment
Neurology and psychiatry: East and West, and the Twain shall never meet. However, the two specialties do have a common root. The main difference has been that disorders with behavioral disturbances came to be regarded as mainly “functional” without a structural basis, while neurology concerned itself with symptoms having an origin in organic changes.
Neurology has matured as a separate clinical specialty with close contacts with biology and similarities with internal medicine. At the same time, the influence of socioeconomic, familial, and interpersonal relationship brought a new dimension to clinical psychiatry. The two specialties drifted away from each other. Neurology developed from a mainly diagnostic, descriptive specialty with few possibilities for therapeutic interventions into an active discipline based upon therapeutic manipulation of biological systems. The progress in functional MRI, improved imaging techniques, development in genetics, and the revolution in molecular medicine with its understanding of signal transmission in brain gave neurology a new image.
The development of behavioral neurology has effaced the border between neurology and psychiatry. With the development of imaging techniques it became possible to study the morphological correlates to personality traits and neuro-psychiatric symptoms and relate these to genetic, biochemical, and neuroreceptor characteristics that serve to expand and modify the diagnostic classification. Psychiatry and neurology share a common basis in neuroscience. This development accelerated during the last decade and is now firmly established in basic research.
This does not mean that neurologists will be able to manage psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. Nor will psychiatrists take over the care of patients with multiple sclerosis, epilepsies, or hereditary ataxias. Neurology and psychiatry may have developed from two sides of the earth, but there is much more that brings us together than which separates us. The two specialties are strong enough to stand face to face.
Neuropsychology is the study about the structure and function of the brain and their specific psychological processes and behaviours. It aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders. Here classical neurology deals with information about physiology of the nervous system and classical psychology deals with mind and its behavioural characteristics. So that Neuropsychology tends to discover how the brain correlates with the mind. It thus shares concepts and concerns with neuropsychiatry .l. The term neuropsychology normally stands for lesion studies in humans and animals with respect to the recordings of electrical activity from individual cells or groups of cells.
Neuropharmacology gives data about how sedates influence the sensory system, and the neural mechanisms through which they induce conduct. The two noteworthy branches of neuropharmacology are behavioral and molecular. Behavioral neuropharmacology centers around the investigation of how drugs influence human behaviour, including the investigation of how medicate reliance and addiction influence the human mind.
- Biological psychiatry
- Mind/brain monism
- Causal pluralism
- Neurochemical interactions
- Behavioral & Molecular neuropharmacology
- Psychoactive drug and neurotransmitters
Social neuroscience is a research field which relates how social processes and behaviors are implemented by the biological system using biological concepts and methods to inform and refine theories of social processes and behavior.
Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to change or adapt itself throughout an individual's life. It may results in the change of proportion of grey matter, and synaptic alterations. Advanced brain imaging technologies are used to investigate neuroplasticity in relation to recovery and treatment of neurologic injury and disease.
- Mind reading using neuro imaging
- Functional imaging in Psychiatry
- Brain Training
Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that examines the biology of the nervous system with molecular biology, molecular genetics, protein chemistry and related methodologies. Scientists those who are interested in how the microenvironment of the brain works, in terms of molecules and atoms, they studies neurotransmitter, biophysical process, transporters and related fields. Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology applied to the nervous systems of animals. The scope of this subject covers topics such as molecular neuroanatomy, mechanisms of molecular signalling in the nervous system, the effects of genetics and epigenetics on neuronal development, and the molecular basis for neuroplasticity and neurodegenerative diseases.
Systems neuroscience addresses the function of neural circuits in intact organisms. The ultimate goal of this area of research is to understand the function of the nervous system at a variety of levels, from single cells to entire networks that mediate complex behaviors such as vision, audition and motor responses. Because systems neuroscience addresses such a broad range of issues, it integrates experimental, analytic and theoretical techniques from a wide range of disciplines.
At the finest scale of analysis, systems researchers investigate how single cells function as computational units. These studies assess the roles of channel distribution, electrical cable properties and dendritic architecture in neural computation.
Mental illness covers a huge variety of disorders, from schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer's, anxiety and self-harm to eating disorders. Psychotherapy is often used either alone or in blend with medications to treat mental illnesses. These days extraordinary advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness. Treatment methods for psychiatric disorders can be categorized as somatic and psychotherapeutic. We will be discussing about somatic treatments including drugs, electro convulsive therapy, and deep brain stimulation such as Trans-cranial magnetic stimulation therapy on psychotherapeutic treatments and as well as mindfulness based therapies.
- Innovations in Electroconvulsive Therapy
- Botulinum toxin: an emerging therapeutic towards treatment of depression
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy
- Implementation of mindfulness-based therapies
- Herbal medicine in psychiatry
- Yoga for mental health training
In comparison with many other medical disorders, psychiatric disorders are poorly understood and better treatments are needed. These disorders can be the outcome of many different kinds of experiences in a person's life, from early childhood to later life events. So there is a need for research in psychiatry because of the scale of mental health problems, the challenges of an ageing population and age-associated psychiatric disorders and the fact that, Rehabilitation is really necessary in psychiatry.
- Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research
- Population Based Study
- Risks and Benefits
- Post-Trial Obligations
Psychology is the study of behavior and mind. Cognitive science is the study of mind and its processes. Psychology is the study of behavior and mind, embracing all aspects of conscious and unconscious experience as well as thought. It is an academic discipline and an applied science which seeks to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines the nature, the tasks, and the functions of cognition. Cognitive scientists study intelligence and behavior, with a focus on how nervous systems represent, process, and transform information. Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include perception,language, memory, attention, reasoning, and emotion; to understand these faculties, The analyses typical of cognitive science span many levels of organization, from learning and decision to logic and planning; from neural circuitry to modular brain organization. The fundamental concept of cognitive science is that "thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures."
Cognitive psychologists are often called as brain scientists. They study how the human brain works, how they think, remember and learn. They apply psychological science to understand how we perceive events and make decisions.
The human brain is an amazing and powerful tool that allows us to learn, see, remember, hear, perceive, understand and create language. Sometimes, the human brain also fails us. Cognitive psychologists study how people acquire, perceive, process and store information. This work can range from exploring how we learn language to understanding the interplay between cognition and emotion.
New technologies like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow researchers to see a picture of the brain at work, helping them to understand how a brain reacts to a particular stimulus or how differences in brain structure can affect a person’s health, personality or cognition.
Cognitive psychology and Brain science is one of the most versatile psychological specialty now a days and also demanding. All professions have a compelling interest in how the brain works. Educators, curriculum designers, engineers, scientists, judges, public health and safety officials, architects and graphic designers all want to know more about how the brain processes information. Their research and its resulting applications have become an integral part of how organizations, schools and businesses function and succeed. In clinical settings, cognitive psychologists seek to treat issues related to human mental processes, including Alzheimer’s disease, speech issues, memory loss and sensory or perception difficulties.
Human behavior is not just the product of culture, and it is not just the product of biology, either. Human behavior and human culture emerge from a complex interaction between genetic dispositions and environmental circumstances. Those environmental circumstances range from physical aspects of the biosphere to imaginary cultural constructs.
Evolutionary psychology is not simply a sub discipline of psychology but its evolutionary theory can provide a foundational, metatheoretical framework that integrates the entire field of psychology in the same way evolutionary biology has for biology. Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection in human evolution.
Evolutionary psychologists hold that behaviors or traits that occur universally in all cultures are good candidates for evolutionary adaptations including the abilities to infer others' emotions, discern kin from non-kin identify and prefer healthier mates, and cooperate with others. Some works focuses on formulating a comprehensive biocultural theoretical paradigm, one that pays close attention to biology as well as culture as reciprocally causal factors in human evolutionary history.
- Gene-Culture Coevolution
- Biology, the Social Sciences, and the Humanities
Bio-cultural Research for a Bio-cultural Species
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